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Descriptive Case Study

Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study - PLOS Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study - PLOS
Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because t

Descriptive Case Study

We then added 150 l, 600 l, and 500 l of extraction buffer (1pbs0. The results of an initial metagenomic analysis of some of the samples collected from this effort have already been reported broadly defined, epizootiological studies are the study of disease occurrence in animal (in this case honey bee) populations. Plos one 4(8) e6481.

While the number of managed honey bee colonies has been in decline in the u. Another indirect measure of developmental stress is fluctuating asymmetry (fa). An additional sample of 320 bees, collected from the same frame, was placed in 75 ethanol in a 125 ml sampling container and used for quantification of varroa mite mean abundance, hbtm prevalence, and spp.

A diverse range of pesticides, both grower- and beekeeper-applied, have been detected in hive matrices. The current study aimed to (a) characterize the spatial distribution of strong, weak, and dead colonies in apiaries containing colonies with and without ccd symptoms (b) quantify and compare measurements among populations suspected to be suffering from ccd with apparently healthy colonies and (c) gain insight into the cause of ccd. For example, whole-bee protein levels can serve as an indirect measure of developmental stress.

Pesticide exposure is also a risk factor that was quantified in this study. We used bca protein assay kits (pierce scientific, rockford, il) to quantify protein content from six separate adult worker honey bees from each of the sampled colonies containing live bees (n  79). We performed the bca tests by adding 18 l of 1x phosphate-buffered saline, 2 l thawed protein extract, and 100 l bca working reagent (pierce scientific, rockford, il) to individual pcr reaction tubes, vortexing and spinning the tubes to homogenize the reagents, and incubating them for 30 min at 37c on a thermocycler.

The human medical literature, however, is filled with examples of such broadly defined disease (e. A subset of these bees was used for pathogen, protein, and pesticide analyses. Historically, nosema disease was thought to be caused by the gut parasite.

From each living colony from which adult bees were sampled into ethanol (n  76), both forewings from 10 workers were removed and mounted on microscope slides using transparent tape. Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of ccd. Notably, both dead and weak colonies in ccd apiaries were neither being robbed by bees (despite the lack of available forage in the area as evidenced by the lack of nectar in the comb of strong colonies in the area and by conversations with managing beekeepers) nor were they being attacked by secondary pests (despite the presence of ample honey and beebread in the vacated equipment). Fa is defined as random differences in the shape or size of a bilaterally symmetrical character because organisms exposed to stress during early development show less symmetry than unstressed organisms some factors quantified and compared in this study have known impacts on colony health. Both the hbtm and the varroa mite were introduced into the u.


Case study - Wikipedia


In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.

Descriptive Case Study

Case study as a research method - psyking.net
case study as a research method 2 investigate contemporary real-life phenomenon through detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions, and their relationships.
Descriptive Case Study The centroid size of each wing was calculated by determining the relative position (landmark) of 12 vein intersections after 53 and then calculating the square root of the sum of squared distances between each landmark and the centroid of each forewing. Many fields require their own form of case study, but they are most widely used in academic and business contexts. We classified these colonies as either alive or dead (i. Thus, the use of a sensitive, potentially overly inclusive definition is typical when investigating conditions for which the inclusion of suspect cases cannot be validated (e.
  • Descriptive & Inferential Statistics: Definition, Differences ...


    In an attempt to identify the potential cause(s) of ccd, we conducted an epizootiological survey of ccd-affected and non-affected apiaries. . A subset of these bees was used for pathogen, protein, and pesticide analyses. D, evans jd, saegerman c, mullin c, haubruge e, nguyen bk, et al. While the number of managed honey bee colonies has been in decline in the u.

    Western) or as african in origin (northern vs. Thirty of these bees also had their abdomens removed to measure the mean abundance of ) was determined by examining thoracic slices of 16 bees per colony, which is the number suggested for differentiating highly infested colonies (prevalence 30) and colonies with low infestation (prevalence). A hallmark of these studies is that they are performed without a specific hypothesis, but they require an ability to classify the surveyed population into diseased and non-diseased individuals (in this case, colonies) based on a case definition. Notably, both dead and weak colonies in ccd apiaries were neither being robbed by bees (despite the lack of available forage in the area as evidenced by the lack of nectar in the comb of strong colonies in the area and by conversations with managing beekeepers) nor were they being attacked by secondary pests (despite the presence of ample honey and beebread in the vacated equipment). After the wings and legs were removed from the thorax (because, during shipping, many bees did not have a full complement of appendages), we weighed each body segment to the nearest 0.

    Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of ccd. An additional sample of 320 bees, collected from the same frame, was placed in 75 ethanol in a 125 ml sampling container and used for quantification of varroa mite mean abundance, hbtm prevalence, and spp. Plos one 4(8) e6481. Apiaries were classified as (1) having no colonies with ccd symptoms (control) or (2) having colonies with ccd symptoms (ccd). Other pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, trypanosomes, and viruses, can also significantly impact colony health. Both the hbtm and the varroa mite were introduced into the u. Finally, all live and dead (n  12) colonies had 15 cm15 cm sections of brood comb removed from them, which contained wax and often (but not always) bee brood and beebread. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize ccd and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by ccd. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite this is the first comprehensive survey of ccd-affected bee populations that suggests ccd involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. The centroid size of each wing was calculated by determining the relative position (landmark) of 12 vein intersections after 53 and then calculating the square root of the sum of squared distances between each landmark and the centroid of each forewing.

    Categorizing Statistics. The study of statistics can be categorized into two main branches. These branches are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

    How to Do a Case Study (with Pictures) - wikiHow

    How to Do a Case Study. Many fields require their own form of case study, but they are most widely used in academic and business contexts. An academic case study focuses on an individual or a small group, producing a detailed but...
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    In some cases, the descriptions of colony losses were similar to those described above. Plos one 4(8) e6481. By physically mapping dead and weak colonies within ccd-affected and non-affected apiaries, we determined whether colonies graded with the same condition were randomly distributed within apiaries. The current study aimed to (a) characterize the spatial distribution of strong, weak, and dead colonies in apiaries containing colonies with and without ccd symptoms (b) quantify and compare measurements among populations suspected to be suffering from ccd with apparently healthy colonies and (c) gain insight into the cause of ccd. In those ccd colonies where some adult bees remained, there were insufficient numbers of bees to cover the brood, the remaining worker bees appeared young (i Buy now Descriptive Case Study

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    Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of ccd. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize ccd and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by ccd. Thus, the use of a sensitive, potentially overly inclusive definition is typical when investigating conditions for which the inclusion of suspect cases cannot be validated (e. The physical locations of the hives in a subset of the visited apiaries (n  9) were mapped. For example, a condition named may disease occurred in colorado in 18, where large clusters of bees completely disappeared or significantly declined over a short period of time numerous causes of ccd have been proposed, often with little or no supporting data Descriptive Case Study Buy now

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    The current study aimed to (a) characterize the spatial distribution of strong, weak, and dead colonies in apiaries containing colonies with and without ccd symptoms (b) quantify and compare measurements among populations suspected to be suffering from ccd with apparently healthy colonies and (c) gain insight into the cause of ccd. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite this is the first comprehensive survey of ccd-affected bee populations that suggests ccd involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. The mean abundance of varroa mites (mites per bee, or mpb) was determined by separating mites from the entire sample of bees stored in ethanol by shaking them in soapy water and then counting both the number of mites and bees in the sample Buy Descriptive Case Study at a discount

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    Descriptive epizootiological studies attempt to elucidate the cause(s) of disease by comparing health and risk factors in diseased and non-diseased populations. The condition of the quality of the brood pattern was also noted with areas of capped brood containing less than 80 viable brood (as indicated by cells empty of brood) were considered spotty while those brood patterns that had less than 20 brood mortality were considered solid. Fa is defined as random differences in the shape or size of a bilaterally symmetrical character because organisms exposed to stress during early development show less symmetry than unstressed organisms some factors quantified and compared in this study have known impacts on colony health Buy Online Descriptive Case Study

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    The mean abundance of varroa mites (mites per bee, or mpb) was determined by separating mites from the entire sample of bees stored in ethanol by shaking them in soapy water and then counting both the number of mites and bees in the sample. A two-way anova (repeated measures) revealed that the mean square of the interaction between individual bees and wing side was significantly larger than the mean square of the error term (f  4. Each sample was homogenized using a clean plastic pestle, placed on ice for 30 min, and centrifuged at 14,000 g for 5 min. We then cooled the tubes on ice for 15 min and immediately read their absorbance using a nanodrop spectrophotometer. We used bca protein assay kits (pierce scientific, rockford, il) to quantify protein content from six separate adult worker honey bees from each of the sampled colonies containing live bees (n  79) Buy Descriptive Case Study Online at a discount

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    Other pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, trypanosomes, and viruses, can also significantly impact colony health. The wings were then scanned at 600 dpi using a hewlett packard scanjet adf flatbed scanner. Immediately after weighing, each segment was placed into a separate 1. Studies based on initially broad operational definitions permit the refinement of the case definition as more knowledge is gained about the condition. Frames of brood with insufficient bee coverage, indicating the rapid loss of adult bees.

    Honey bee larvae require sufficient protein in their brood food to ensure proper development and to optimize their activities during the winter. Western) or as african in origin (northern vs Descriptive Case Study For Sale

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    D, evans jd, saegerman c, mullin c, haubruge e, nguyen bk, et al. From each living colony from which adult bees were sampled into ethanol (n  76), both forewings from 10 workers were removed and mounted on microscope slides using transparent tape. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named colony collapse disorder (ccd) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. Immediately after weighing, each segment was placed into a separate 1. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

    Other confounding measures are those that quantify colony stress For Sale Descriptive Case Study

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    This process uses bicinchoninic acid for the colorimetric detection and quantification of soluble protein (bradford assay), which indicates the developmental nutrition of bees within a colony during larval feeding we removed each bee from 80c storage onto ice and separated its head, gaster (abdomen), and thorax with a razor blade. Pennsylvania department of agriculture, harrisburg, pennsylvania, united states of america, department of entomology, the pennsylvania state university, university park, pennsylvania, united states of america united states department of agriculture (usda) agricultural research service (ars) bee research laboratory, beltsville, maryland, united states of america department of infectious and parasitic diseases, epidemiology and risk analysis applied to the veterinary sciences, university of liege, liege, belgium department of entomology, the pennsylvania state university, university park, pennsylvania, united states of america department of functional and evolutionary entomology, gembloux agricultural university, gembloux, belgium department of entomology, north carolina state university, raleigh, north carolina, united states of america over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee ( l Sale Descriptive Case Study

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